Granted, there are one or two improvements in the revision, but to listen to this is to realise that the wildly lateral, quirkily brilliant Schumann of the earlier piano music was still very much alive in 1841. was convinced of its merit. Length: c. 30 minutes. 1 Spring (1841) [30.50] Symphony No. In the original version of the symphony, the music went straight from the exposition into a more developmental section. Symphony No 4 in D minor Op 120 (original version, 1841) As so often in classical music, the number is misleading. [1], The 1851 (published) version of the work is in four movements which follow each other without pause:[1], The 1841 version, however, used Italian rather than German tempo indications, with the four movements as follows:[2], Schumann's biographer Peter Ostwald comments that this earlier version is "lighter and more transparent in texture" than the revision, but that Clara "always insisted that the later, heavier, and more stately version [of 1851] was the better one. Though the original version has its fans (notably Johannes Brahms), the revised version is the one most often performed today. Though other composers had used this technique before, Schumann took it to another level in this symphony. 52, near-symphony in what has come to be known as his Symphonic Year -- 1841. Gardiner chooses the 1841 version of the D minor work, No 4, which the LSO play as if discovering it anew. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for Schumann: Symphony No. 1 "Spring"; Symphony No. In 1838, during a visit to Vienna, Schumann discovered the autograph score of Schubert’s Symphony no 9, also referred to as the ‘Great’ C major Symphony, neglected and still unperformed. The symphony begins with a slow, brooding introduction based on a winding figure in the violins, violas and bassoons: Throughout the symphony, the music will maintain the feverish, passionate quality of the introduction, even in moments of lightness and joy. In 1841, Robert Schumann finally had the breakthrough he had long dreamed of as an orchestral composer. Here too, the heroic theme is absent; most of the material of the coda is based on the dancing transitional theme. This theme, now in D major, becomes the main idea of the finale (interestingly, Schumann made some substantial changes to this theme when he revised the symphony—compare the original to the revised version, which is more concentrated and economical). SCHUMANN: Symphony No. Get tickets and more information at houstonsymphony.org. 4 in D Minor, Op. He created no less than two works that year: his first, the Spring Symphony, and a piece he originally conceived as a Symphonic Fantasy and which later turned into his Symphony in D-minor. As close as the two scores are, the 1841 original has come to be called Symphony in D minor. Schumann : Symphonien 1 - 4 | Robert Schumann by Sir Simon Rattle – Download and listen to the album ... Symphony No. Symphony No. To help draw attention to the concert, Franz Liszt, the most famous piano virtuoso of the day, agreed to appear and play a duet with Clara (who had considerable star-power in her own right). The premiere took place under the baton of Felix Mendelssohn on 31 March 1841 in Leipzig, where the symphony was warmly received. It took him all of four days in January to complete the first draft of his First Symphony. 4 was originally written nine years earlier in 1841, in the first flush of happiness after Schumann’s marriage to Clara — a marriage which had been opposed by Clara’s father, to the point of a court challenge. Furthermore, while his First Symphony had been a bright, cheerful work inspired by thoughts of springtime, this new piece would be darker and more dramatic. Buy track 00:05:35. Critics, however, were generally positive, and Schumann hoped to sell the work to his publisher. According to Brahms, who preferred the original version, the later edition slowed the tempo and stripped it of its initial charm. as a birthday present for his wife Clara. This new, driving motif becomes the main idea of the faster main section of the movement. Immediately after completing his First Symphony, Schumann wrote this work. In the revised version, Schumann indicates that the orchestra should pause slightly before the new movement begins (likely remembering how the public had been confused by the original version), although the two movements are still linked. Schumann — Symphony No. Dissatisfied with the first version of the work, Schumann revised it extensively in 1852. 3 Rhenish (1850) [32.57] Symphony No. Schumann completed the first draft of his First Symphony in only four days the following January, and after a few tweaks it was premiered to great acclaim by the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra led by Felix Mendelssohn on March 31. 120, composed by Robert Schumann, was first completed in 1841. Italian for “joke,” the scherzo replaced the minuet as the typical third movement of a symphony in the early nineteenth century. This brooding music morphs into a lilting violin solo before returning to the oboe-cello duet. As he said: "If one is capable of doing anything at all, one must be capable of doing it quickly – the quicker the better, in fact. 1841 (June 1841), revised 1851 (June) First Perf ormance. Normally, a section known as an exposition would now unfold: a first theme would be linked by transitional material to a contrasting second theme in a new key. 4 in D minor, Op. The Symphony No. Perhaps in an effort to clarify the structure of the piece, Schumann added a repeat of the exposition when he revised the work (Mozart and Beethoven both normally repeated the expositions of their symphonies). Perhaps it is not meant to. Schumann completed the orchestration of the symphony by October 4, and the premiere took place once again with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra on December 6. Schumann sketched out his Symphony # 1 in B-Flat, Op. 4 on October 18, 20 & 21, 2018! In this post, learn more Schumann and this fascinating work. Capping off this remarkably productive period, he finished a draft of the Symphony in D minor over the course of the first week in June. —Calvin Dotsey. Required fields are marked *. 4. 4 in D Minor, Op. 4 (1841) [29.34] Genoveva Overture [9.17] Manfred Overture (1849) [11.56] Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra/Rafael Kubelik rec Berlin, 1963, 1964, stereo, ADD Traditionally, the development takes the main ideas of the exposition and develops them through a process of fragmentation, recombination and harmonic instability. Though it is difficult to summarize Romanticism, Romantic writers and poets explored themes of emotion, irrationality, the supernatural, nature, childhood, horror, the sublime, dreams, memories and irony. Robert Schumann - Symphony No. After the huge success of his First Symphony in 1841 (the ‘Spring’), Schumann, with typical single-mindedness, forged ahead through the remainder of the year with his focus squarely on orchestral music. Scherzos typically retain the dance-like character and triple meter of the minuet, but are often faster and wilder than their courtly predecessors. The year 1841 finally marked Robert Schumann's breakthrough as a composer for orchestra. 120: 2nd movement ... Symphony No. Given the symphony’s highly unconventional structure, it is not surprising that the audience found the original version puzzling. Schumann had a great interest in the music of Bach and other older composers, and was likely exploring new ways to incorporate their musical logic into a symphonic structure. Nevertheless, conductors almost always choose to follow Schumann’s crossed-out indication rather than his final one, and the solo cello has become an ingrained part of the performing tradition of this piece. It was coolly received initially. Accompanied by wisps of the main idea from the first movement, the brass intone a noble and mysterious rising figure. Another long dissonant note announces the beginning of the frenetic coda, which becomes faster and faster as the symphony races towards its ending. What is more remarkable was that with a few deft repetitions and revisions, Schumann was able to make this radical work intelligible to his contemporaries. 4 in D minor (First Version from 1841) – Robert Schumann. The heroic, dotted-rhythm theme then becomes the subject of a fugue, a complex type of music in which a main idea is passed from one part to another. Once again, Schumann subverts expectations when it comes time for the recapitulation—he omits the reprise of the heroic theme altogether, skipping to the dancing, harmonically unstable transitional theme and returning to D major with the sweet, lyrical second theme. Robert's Schumann's Symphony No.4 premiered. The Gewandhaus Orchestra of Leipzig, with Felix Mendelssohn conducting, presented the premiere to great acclaim on March 31. When the music does return to the home key, it returns not to the dark key of D minor, but a brilliant, frenzied D major. Although it only met with a. lukewarm reception when it was first performed in Leipzig in 1841, Schumann. 1 in F minor, Op. After a reprise of the opening scherzo, the lilting melody returns, but gradually disintegrates. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Where his First Symphony had been relatively conventional, his new symphony would be experimental and unorthodox. Though the entire nineteenth century is often labelled as the Romantic era in music history textbooks, Schumann was one of the few composers who self-consciously identified as a Romantic during this time, and his music was powerfully influenced by the Romantic movement in literature. The work is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani and the usual strings. In a masterful transition (one of the passages Schumann revised, incidentally–you can hear the original version here), the music gradually accelerates as a new figure appears in the strings. He created no less than two works that year: his first, the Spring Symphony, and a piece he originally conceived as a Symphonic Fantasy and which later turned into his Symphony in D-minor. 1-4 ... A special feature of this recording is the performance of the early version of the Fourth Symphony from 1841, which appealed to Simon Rattle for its extra “lightness, grace and beauty,” compared to the established later version. 4 in D Minor, Op. This latest release on the LSO Live label programs Schumann’s symphonies 2 and 4 (1841 version) along with the Genoveva overture. Schumann heavily revised the symphony in 1851, and it was this version that reached publication. The ending of the symphony is certainly thrilling and emphatically in D major, but does it completely resolve the feverish, Romantic passion of all that came before? Schumann heavily revised the symphony in 1851, and it was this version that reached publication. The work known to most modern listeners as Schumann’s Fourth Symphony was, in fact, the second he completed. After a courtship of five years and a protracted legal battle with her father (who opposed the match), Schumann had finally married the piano virtuoso Clara Wieck on September 12, 1840. In the following months, Schumann wrote his Overture, Scherzo and Finale and the first movement of what would become his Piano Concerto. Although a version of this work was completed in 1841, Schumann heavily revised it in 1851, the version that reached publication. It did not help that Mendelssohn was unavailable to conduct Schumann’s new symphony (Clara complained that the orchestra did not play as well as it could have), and many audience members were confused by its unusual form. The Fourth is performed in the original version that Schumann heavily revised. Romanza - Andante Artist: Robert Schumann Album: Harnoncourt Conducts Schumann, 2009. The surprise, however, is that the contrasting middle section consists of the return of the lilting violin solo melody from the previous movement, now played by the entire section. Although the revised version, published in 1853, is now known as Schumann's fourth and final symphony, the D minor work was actually the composer's second and followed both the B flat First Symphony and the puzzling, three-movement Overture, Scherzo, and Finale, Op. Symphony No. 1853 - Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel (revised version) 120: 2nd movement; Robert Schumann - Symphony No. Schumann’s development begins this way at first, but because he focused on the main idea of the movement so much in the exposition, he now begins to introduce new themes in the development: the normal functions of exposition and development are reversed. Indeed, the original inversion included an unwritten, ad libitum part for guitar, conjuring images of serenading troubadours. 38 "Spring": IV. It was characteristic of Schumann’s Romanticism that he sought to make the familiar appear strange, and in many of his works he takes a radical, highly idiosyncratic and unconventional approach to form. ‘The Fourth Symphony is played in the 1841 version. 38 in a mere four days in late January 1841. That year, he created no less than two works: his First Symphony, also known as the Spring Symphony, and a piece which he initially planned as a Symphonic Fantasy in one movement, and which would later become his Symphony in D Minor. The second movement takes a slower tempo and is titled “Romanza” or “Romance,” suggesting a song-like vocal work. Robert Schumann, conductor First Pub lication. Symphony No. On October 18, 20 and 21, legendary violinist Itzhak Perlman returns to the Houston Symphony for our Perlman Plays and Conducts program. Following his year of songs (1840), Robert Schumann turned his attention to orchestral music in 1841. This site uses cookies. Gardiner’s reading is lively and agile, slender and full of tension…The conductor also elicits entirely new aspects from the 2nd Symphony in D major.’ Pizzicato. The revision is a masterpiece of Romantic passion and fervor, at once exhilarating and a little unhinged. In 1840, Schumann had focused his creative energies on songs for voice and piano, producing an astonishing three song cycles (Liederkreis, Frauenliebe und –leben and Dichterliebe), which remain cornerstones of the German lieder repertoire. 4 in D Minor (Robert Schumann) ... Più vivace - Stringendo - Presto (1841) Berliner Philharmoniker. the return of the brooding music that began the symphony, the return of the lilting violin solo melody, the return of the heroic, dotted-rhythm theme, the dancing, harmonically unstable transitional theme, A Baroque Christmas: Q&A with Guest Vocalist Morris Robinson, Playliszt: 10 Great Pieces by Music’s Original Rock Star. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. 1841-12-06 in Leipzig: Saal des Gewandhauses (original version) Gewandhausorchester. The premiere of Symphony No 1, ‘Spring’, in March 1841, directed by Felix Mendelssohn, had been a surprise success. Instead of writing a symphony with four clearly delineated movements, Schumann sought to fuse the traditional four movements, creating an unbroken, immersive flow of music. Instead, Schumann continues to develop the main idea, almost obsessively. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The piece had been composed in 1841 and revised in 1851, to adapt it to the deficiencies of Schumann's orchestra in Dusseldorf. In 1841, he turned to orchestral music. The music does move from D minor to F major, brightening somewhat, and there are some new secondary ideas, but the main idea of the movement is always present throughout. How wonderful, too, to hear such a gripping, thoroughly convinced-sounding rendition of the original version of No. It was conducted by Ferdinand David at Leipzig's Gewandhaus. The Symphony No. Given Gardiner’s emphasis on Schumann’s originality, this … 4 STARS ‘Lean and lithe are two descriptions of John Eliot Gardiner’s approach to … Both scherzos and minuets usually feature a contrasting middle section, and this one is no exception. [3], Learn how and when to remove this template message, International Music Score Library Project, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symphony_No._4_(Schumann)&oldid=991020709, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2009, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, John Daverio, "Robert Schumann: Orchestral Works—A Quest for Mastery of the Grand Form," liner notes to, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 21:10. Robert SCHUMANN (1810-1856) The Four Symphonies Symphony No. Last, a lyrical, vocal melody emerges in the violins that is rhythmically derived from the trombone motif. "[citation needed], The scherzo borrows a theme from Symphony No. In the following months, Schumann wrote his Overtur… This intensity is characteristic of Schumann’s Romanticism. This soon leads to a more heroic, dotted-rhythm theme in the woodwinds that is punctuated by the main idea in the strings. The LSO respond with elan to the bracing textures, confounding the cliché that Schumann “couldn’t orchestrate”. Normally, the development leads back to a recapitulation, which resolves the tension with a reprise of the main themes of the exposition in the home key of the work; here, however, there is no need to reprise the exposition, because all of the real themes were introduced in the development. In a diary entry of May 31, Clara noted “Robert’s mind is very creative now, and he began a symphony yesterday which is to consist of one movement, but with an Adagio and finale. 4 in D minor, Op. Composed: 1841, 1851. 120. 4 (1841 version) 舒曼第四交響曲(1841版本) 客座指揮/Jose Luis Gomez 鋼琴/Joyce Yang 取消 5/9 1 p.m. PSSS SEASON FINALE: STORY TIME. All of Schumann’s innovations serve to integrate the movements of the symphony and maintain a powerful forward momentum, like a well-written novel with a gripping plot full of surprising twists and turns. Explore the 2020–21 season and purchase your subscription today! The discovery inspired him to look further into the symphonic form. Gardiner’s conducting brings freshness, vivaciousness and clarity to these works. However, he abandoned any notion of having it. Schumann sketched the symphony in four days from 23 to 26 January and completed the orchestration by 20 February. 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